Consonant Group 2

s / s – sun

  • Unvoiced. This sound is made by passing air through the mouth.
  • Begin with your lips slightly parted.
  • Your front teeth should be very close together but slightly parted.
  • The tip of your tongue touches the back of your lower front teeth.
  • At the same time, the edges of the middle part of your tongue touch your upper side teeth (see photo).
  • The center of the tongue is not touching the roof of your mouth; there is a passage down the center of the tongue for the air to flow out of your mouth and make the sound.
  • Similar sound: /z/

z / z – zipper

  • Voiced. This sound is made with your vocal cords.
  • Your lips must be slightly parted.
  • Your front teeth should be very close together but slightly parted.
  • The tip of your tongue touches the back of your lower front teeth.
  • The edges of the middle part of your tongue touch your upper side teeth (see photo).
  • There is a passage down the center of your tongue for the air to flow out of your mouth and make the sound.
  • Your tongue should vibrate slightly when making this sound.
  • Similar sound: /s/

f / f – fish

  • Unvoiced. This sound is made by passing air through your mouth.
  • Start by raising your lower lip to meet the bottom part of your upper front teeth.
  • The teeth should be just touching your lower lip (and not covering it).
  • When making this sound, the tip of the tongue slightly touches the lower front teeth.
  • Similar sound: /v/

v / v – violin

  • Voiced. This sound is made with your vocal cords.
  • Start by raising your lower lip to meet the bottom part of your upper front teeth.
  • Your teeth should be just touching your lower lip (and not covering it).
  • When making this sound, the tip of your tongue rests behind your lower front teeth.
  • You should feel a slight vibration in your lower lip.
  • Similar sound: /f/

th / θ – throw

  • There are two ‘t-h’ sounds. This one is unvoiced. This sound is made by passing air through the mouth.
  • Start by sticking the tip of your tongue out between your teeth.
  • Your teeth should be lightly touching your tongue. If you bite too hard, the air cannot flow out. The rest of your mouth should be relaxed.
  • Note: This sound cannot be made unless your tongue is sticking out. If your tongue does not stick out, this sound becomes the /s/ sound.

th / ð – mother

  • There are two ‘t-h’ sounds. This one is voiced. This sound is made with your vocal cords.
  • Start by sticking the tip of your tongue out between your teeth.
  • Like the other ‘t-h’ sound, your teeth should be lightly touching your tongue. If you bite too hard, the air will not flow out.
  • When you make this sound, you should feel a slight vibration in your tongue.
  • Note: This sound cannot be made unless your tongue is sticking out. If your tongue does not stick out, this sound becomes the /z/ sound.

h / h – house

  •  Unvoiced. This sound is made by passing air through the mouth.
  • Open your mouth and breathe out air as though you want someone to smell your breath.
  • When you make this sound by itself, your lips and teeth are slightly parted.
  • When you say the sound in a word, your mouth and lips will take the shape of the sound that comes next.